The three most commonly employed components of entrainment are binaural beats, monaural beats and isochronic beats. All three are contained in a harmonic matrix in every level of Omni-Sync.
Binaural beats are created by a playing a particular frequency into one ear, and a slightly different frequency into the other. The brain picks up the difference between the two frequencies as a series of beats. For example, in this stereo track, one channel has a 300HZ frequency (that's 300 cycles per second) and the other has a 290HZ frequency:
The image shows one-tenth of a second of a binaural stereo file. Close examination shows the two tracks are in phase at the beginning and end of the image, but 180 degrees out of phase at the center of the image. When the tracks are in phase, they complement each other, when they are 180 degrees out of phase they cancel each other out. This creates a single beat. Since there are 10 identical sequences in one second of audio, this track will produce 10 beats per second, which is in the alpha range.
However, these beats are not produced by the audio file itself: they are created within the brain of the listener. For this reason, binaural beats can only be heard properly when listening with headphones.
To demonstrate this effect, listen to the mp3 file below using earphones or earbuds, but listen to only one channel (left or right). You will not hear any beats, just a constant tone. To hear the beats you need to listen to both left and right channels, which shows that your brain is producing the beats.
If we combine the two binaural tracks into a monaural file, the result looks like this:
The image shows 1 second of a monaural file. The 10 beats are now clearly visible.
Since the beats are embedded in the audio file, it is not necessary to use headphones to hear them.
Isochronic beats are pulses, separated by periods of silence.
The image shows 1 second of a 10HZ isochronic track. Each pulse takes .06 of a second, followed by .04 seconds of silence. The frequency within the pulse is 100HZ. The shape of the pulses shows that they fade in and out rather than being simply on/off. This makes the sound of the pulses more comfortable to listen to.
The chart shows the entrainment frequencies associated with each Omni-Sync level, and the corresponding physiological effects.